|  e-ISSN: 2147-5156

Original article | Turkish Journal of Teacher Education 2022, Vol. 11(1) 41-56

Students with Special Needs During COVID-19: A Case for Pakistan

Arsalan Rasheed, Dur e Mishal, Sabir Shah, Malaika Noor, Sana Awan, Shumaila Lateef

pp. 41 - 56   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2112-26-0005.R1

Published online: June 30, 2022  |   Number of Views: 30  |  Number of Download: 202


After the COVID-19 pandemic, a phenomenological research was done on 19 students with special needs to examine their motivation and the educational environment. A questionnaire and in-person interviews were used to gather the information. Data collection was done, and percentage and frequency analysis were used. The majority of students, it was discovered, liked taking lessons online and felt at ease with this radical shift in teaching style. The benefits of taking lessons online motivated the majority of the pupils. The flexibility and financial savings of online education were rated as its best features. Unfortunately, it has flaws including interaction, disturbances, and one-sided learning. Online safety and security concerns, as well as teachers' incompetence and lack of help for some students with disabilities, were not addressed. It is recommended that instruction be individualised for each student, and that educators try to understand the particular requirements and difficulties faced by students with disabilities in order to include them in online learning settings.

Keywords: COVID-19, Online Classes, Motivation, Disable Students, Higher Education

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Rasheed, A., Mishal, D.e., Shah, S., Noor, M., Awan, S. & Lateef, S. (2022). Students with Special Needs During COVID-19: A Case for Pakistan . Turkish Journal of Teacher Education, 11(1), 41-56.

Rasheed, A., Mishal, D., Shah, S., Noor, M., Awan, S. and Lateef, S. (2022). Students with Special Needs During COVID-19: A Case for Pakistan . Turkish Journal of Teacher Education, 11(1), pp. 41-56.

Chicago 16th edition
Rasheed, Arsalan, Dur e Mishal, Sabir Shah, Malaika Noor, Sana Awan and Shumaila Lateef (2022). "Students with Special Needs During COVID-19: A Case for Pakistan ". Turkish Journal of Teacher Education 11 (1):41-56.


    Ainscow, M. (1995). Education for all: Making it happen. Support for learning, 10(4), 47-155. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9604.1995.tb00031.x

    Altbach, P. G., Reisberg, L. & Rumbley, L. E. (2019). Trends in global higher education: Tracking an academic revolution. Brill. https://brill.com/view/title/36570

    Atack, L., & Rankin J. (2002). Nurses' experiences with Web-based learning. Can Nurse, 98(7), 18-22. PMID: 12238222. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2002.02394.x

    Barkley, E.F., & Major, C.H. (2020). Student engagement techniques: A handbook for college faculty. John Wiley & Sons. shorturl.at/xzAC6

    Bullen, M. (1998). Participation and Critical Thinking in Online University Distance Education. The Journal of Distance Education / Revue de l'ducation Distance, 13(2), 1-32. Athabasca University Press. Retrieved December 5, 2021 from https://www.learntechlib. org/p/89634/.

    Cheurprakobkit, S., Hale, D.F., & Olson, J.N. (2002). Technicians' perceptions about Web-based courses: The University of Texas system experience. The American Journal of Distance Education, 16(4), 245-57. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15389286AJDE1604_4

    Crawford, J., Butler-Henderson, K., Rudolph, J., Malkawi, B., Glowatz, M., Burton, R., Magni, P., & Lam, S. (2020). COVID-19: 20 countries' higher education intra-period digital pedagogy responses. Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching, 3(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.37074/jalt.2020.3.1.7

    Eccles, J. (2009). Who am I and what am I going to do with my life? Personal and collective identities as motivators of action. Educational psychologist, 44(2), 78-89. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520902832368

    Elion, L. (2020). Retrieved from: https://as.tufts.edu/epcshd (Αссеѕѕеԁ: 11th Dес, 2020)

    Eurοpа. Available at: httpѕ://ес.еurοpа.еu/еurοѕtаt/ѕtаtіѕtісѕ-еxplаіnеԁ/іnԁеx.php?tіtlе=Dіѕаbіlіty _ѕtаtіѕtісѕ_-_ассеѕѕ_tο_еԁuсаtіοn_аnԁ_trаіnіng

    Eԁuсаtіοn Wοrlԁ. Impact of online learning on school education.  Available at: httpѕ://www.еԁuсаtіοnwοrlԁ.іn/іmpасt-οf-οnlіnе-lеаrnіng-οn-ѕсhοοl-еԁuсаtіοn/#:~:tеxt=Οnlіnе%20сοurѕеѕ%20саll%20fοr%20а,trасkіng%20prοgrеѕѕ%20аnԁ%20mееtіng%20ԁеаԁlіnеѕ. (Αссеѕѕеԁ: 11th Dес, 2020)

    Eԁuсаtіοnаl Сοnѕultіng ΡС. Available at: httpѕ://www.еԁuсаtіοnаlсοnѕultіngpс.сοm/  (Αссеѕѕеԁ: 11th Dес, 2020).

    Hara, N. (2000). Student distress in a web-based distance education course. Information, Communication & Society. 3(4), 557-79. Available at: https://hdl.handle.net/2022/1092

    Hasan, N., & Khan, N.H. (2020). Online teaching-learning during COVID-19 pandemic: students’ perspective. The Online Journal of Distance Education and e-Learning, 8(4), 202-13. https://tojdel.net/journals/tojdel/articles/v08i04/v08i04-03.pdf

    Hehir, T. (2002). Eliminating ableism in education. Harvard Educational Review, 72(1), 1–32. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.72.1.03866528702g2105

    Higher Education Commission (HEC) Pakistan. Quality in COVID-19 Situation. https://hec.gov.pk/english/services/universities/QAA/Pages/Online-Education.aspx

    Hulleman, C.S., Barron, K.E., Kosovich, J.J., & Lazowski, R.A. (2016). Student motivation: Current theories, constructs, and interventions within an expectancy-value framework. InPsychosocial skills and school systems in the 21st century (pp. 241-278). Springer, Cham. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28606-8_10

    Khan, T.A., Hamid, W., Jahangir, M.S., & Maqbool, T. (2020). Disabled Students Seeking Higher Education in Kashmir: A Study of their Experiences. Higher Education for the Future, 7(2), 132-146. https://doi.org/10.1177/2347631120932241

    Madriaga, M., Hanson, K., Kay, H., & Walker, A. (2011). Marking-out normalcy and disability in higher education. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 32(6), 901-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/01425692.2011.596380

    Marginson, S. (2004). Competition and markets in higher education: A ‘glonacal’analysis. Policy futures in Education, 2(2), 175-244.

    Mayadas, A.F., Bourne, J., & Bacsich, P. (2009). Online education today. Science, 323 (5910), 85-89. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1168874

    McBrien, J.L., Cheng, R., & Jones, P. (2009). Virtual spaces: Employing a synchronous online classroom to facilitate student engagement in online learning. International Review of Research in Open And Distributed Learning, 10 (3). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v10i3.605

    Motteram, G., & Forrester, G. (2005). Becoming an online distance learner: what can be learned from students’ experiences of induction to distance programmes? Distance education, 26(3), 281-98. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587910500291330

    Mishra, L., Gupta, T., & Shree, A. (2020). Online teaching-learning in higher education during lockdown period of COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 1: 100012.

    National Statistical Office (NSO), (2019). Sample survey on Household consumption on Education in India. Available at: http://mospi.nic.in/announcements/summary-analysis-nss-report-no585-household-social-consumption-education-india-nss (May 10, 2020)

    Pianta, R.C. (2015). Classroom management and relationships between children and teachers: Implications for research and practice. InHandbook of classroom management 2013 Oct 31 (pp. 695-720). Routledge.Phipps RA. Measuring Quality in Internet-Based Higher Education. International Higher Education, (20). https://doi.org/10.6017/ihe.2000.20.6882

    Rasheed, A., Usman, T., Niaz, S., Khattak, I., Gul, S., Ali, N., Khan, N.U., Ali, H., & Sarwar, M.S. (2021). A Review on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 2 (SARS COV-2). Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 9:370-534. https://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/20210107160135

    Roberts, T.G., Irani, T.A., Telg, R.W., & Lundy, L.K. (2005). The development of an instrument to evaluate distance education courses using student attitudes. The American Journal of Distance Education, 19(1):51-64. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15389286ajde1901_5

    Rodriguez, M.C., Ooms, A., & Montañez, M. (2008). Students’ perceptions of online-learning quality given comfort, motivation, satisfaction, and experience. Journal of interactive online learning, 7(2), 105-25. https://experts.umn.edu/en/publications/students-perceptions-of-online-learning-quality-given-comfort-mot

    Sansone, C., & Harackiewicz, J.M. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The search for optimal motivation and performance. Elsevier.https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2000-05867-000

    Song, L, Singleton, E.S., Hill, J.R., & Koh, M.H. (2004). Improving online learning: Student perceptions of useful and challenging characteristics. The internet and higher education, 7(1), 59-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2003.11.003

    Thurmond, V.A., Wambach, K., Connors, H.R., & Frey, B.B. (2002). Evaluation of student satisfaction: Determining the impact of a web-based environment by controlling for student characteristics. The American journal of distance education, 16(3), 169-90. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15389286AJDE1603_4

    Tinto V. (1997). Enhancing learning via community. Thought & Action, 13(1), 53-58. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ547598

    UNESCO. (2020). Education: From disruption to recovery. https://en.unesco.org/covid19/educationresponse

    UNESCO. UNESCO’s support: Educational response to COVID-19. Available at: https://en.unesco.org/covid19/educationresponse/support

    UΝ.οrg. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). 2008. Available at: https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities.html#:~:text=The%20Convention%20is%20intended%20as, human%20rights%20and%20fundamental%20freedoms.

    UΝEЅСΟ. The UNESCO Salamanca Statement. http://www.csie.org.uk/inclusion/unesco-salamanca.shtml

    WHO. (2011). World report on disability. https://www.who.int/disabilities/ world_report/2011/report.pdf

    Wigfield, A. (1994). Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation: A developmental perspective. Educ Psychol Rev., 649–78. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02209024

    World Bank. (2020). The COVID-19 Pandemic: Shocks to Education and Policy Responses. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/33696

    Zembylas, M. (2008). Trauma, justice and the politics of emotion: The violence of sentimentality in education. Discourse: Studies in the cultural politics of education. 2008 Mar 1;29(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1080/09523980802107237

    ΚеnnеԁyΚrіеgеr. (2020). Special Education in the Era of COVID-19. Available at:  httpѕ://www.kеnnеԁykrіеgеr.οrg/ѕtοrіеѕ/mаrylаnԁ-сеntеr-ԁеvеlοpmеntаl-ԁіѕаbіlіtіеѕ-nеwѕlеttеr/mаrylаnԁ-сеntеr-ԁеvеlοpmеntаl-ԁіѕаbіlіtіеѕ-nеwѕlеttеr-2020-іѕѕuе-2/ѕpесіаl-еԁuсаtіοn-еrа-сοvіԁ-19 (Αссеѕѕеԁ: 11th Dес, 2020)