Dr. Mehmet Küçük   |  e-ISSN: 2147-5156

Volume 7 Issue 1 (June 2018)

Meaning of the Primary and Secondary School Students towards Equal Sign

Demet Baran Bulut, Berna Aygün, Ali Sabri İpek

pp. 1 - 16


The aim of the present study is to enable primary and secondary students (in grades 3, 4 and 5) how to understand the equal sign. The participants of the study were comprised of a total of 245 students selected from two different cities in the East Black Sea region in Turkey.   Of the 245 students, who were selected on a voluntary basis, 78, 72, and 95 students were from grades 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The 17-item data collection tool employed in the study was designed by the researchers by making use of the tests developed by Saenz-Ludlow and Walgamuth (1998), Witherspoon (1999), Knuth et al. (2005). The study employed a qualitative research design in which data analysis was based on the method of content analysis in which frequency and percentage analysis techniques were utilized. The findings indicated that students focused more on the operational meaning of the equal sign rather than its relational meaning. Furthermore, it has been found that students are more successful in symbolic representation than other representations. In addition, it was found that students had misconceptions regarding the equal sign. Thus, it is believed that by establishing learning environments in which the equal sign can be used to solve equations presented in problems and multiple representations, the misconceptions that students possess can be minimized.

Keywords: Equal sign, operational meaning , relational meaning, representations

The Role of School Attachment and Parental Social Support in Academic Procrastination

Evren Erzen, Özkan Çıkrıkçı

pp. 17 - 27


The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between academic procrastination, school attachment and perceived social support from parents in adolescents and to determine the predictive role of school attachment and parental social support for academic procrastination. In this study, designed in accordance with the correlational research model, the research group included 178 girls (53.8%) and 153 boys (46.2%) for a total of 331 adolescents. The ages of participants varied from 13 to 20 years, with mean age of 17.08 years (SD = 2.28). According to the results of the research, there was a significant correlation between academic procrastination with school attachment and perceived social support from family. Multiple linear regression analysis of data indicated school attachment and perceived social support from family were each significant predictors of tendency toward academic procrastination. The results were discussed in light of the literature. 

Keywords: Academic procrastination adolescent, school attachment, social support

Improvement of Innovative Science Experiments Criteria with Science Teachers

Merve Cin, Suat Türkoğuz

pp. 28 - 49


The aim of this study is to improve inquiry based science experiments’ criteria by science teachers and put forth the relationship between them. In order to improve the criteria, 45 science teachers working in İzmir participated in the workshop held at Buca Education Faculty of Dokuz Eylül University. The sub criteria of the main criteria determined from the literature were formed together with them. The main criteria are: Curiosity, Safe, Simple, Economic, Enjoyable and Relevant. The science experiment with these criteria was defined as the “Innovative Science Experiment” (ISE). As sub criteria of “curiosity” are; science experiment allows students to listen with interest, directs them to research and activates their imagination. The “simple” criterian contains: materials in the science experiment include the simplest, understandable, easy-to-find, the levels of the experiment are easy to understand, prevent the creation of misconceptions. The “safe” criterion covers both the physical security of the materials and the learning environment as well as the psychological safety. "Economical" has been dealt with in terms of experiment budget, effective use of time and curriculum.Enjoyable criteria” are about; student’s interest, motivation and attitude. The "related" criterion is used in the meaning of the lesson’s gains and its relevance to daily life. After the criteria were converted to the 3-point likert type scale, the structure, reliability and descriptive analyzes were made. Among the six criteria, " curiosity, enjoyable and related " and "simple, economic and safe" have higher correlations with each other. It is aimed to use the improved criteria to prepare inquiry based activities or to evaluate the planned experiments. Thus, a more effective learning - teaching environment can be created. These basic criteria can be supplemented with additional criteria such as "design", "technology" and " interdisciplinary" in accordance with the curriculum, the subject and the structure of the changing educational philosophies.

Keywords: Inquiry-based learning, Sccience experiments criteria, Innovative science experiments

Relationship of Teachers’ Professional Competence and Achievement of Students at University Level

Sadia Batool, Tehseen Tahir, Mehtab Habib

pp. 50 - 60


The purpose of the present research was to analyze the relationship between the competence of teachers and students’ achievement and to find out the gender differences if any in the competence of teachers. The sample of the study was 100 teachers and 300 students from renowned universities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad representing the academia and students of Pakistan. Goe and Stickler’s four lenses for evaluating the competency of teachers were used in the present study to analyze teachers’ professional competence which includes qualifications of teachers, characteristics of teachers, teachers’ effectiveness and teaching practices. Two questionnaires were used, one for university teachers and the other for students. It was found that the four independent variables have a combined effect on students’ academic achievement. The males teaching practices showed the strongest contribution to the academic achievement of students whereas, the qualification of female teachers demonstrated the strongest contribution to the academic achievement of students. 

Keywords: Teachers’ qualifications; Teacher competence; Teachers’ characteristics; teachers’ effectiveness; teaching practices

Socio- Demographic Variables as a Predictor of Parents ‘Efficacy for Involvement in Inclusive Education: Experience from Nigeria

Olusegun E. Afolabi, Sourav Mukhopadhyay, H. Johnson Nenty

pp. 50 - 65


Though, much has been said about parent-school collaboration in the past, more information is needed on why involvement varies among parents of learners with SENs in Nigeria. Using the Developmental Ecological Perspectives and Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler model (1995) as theoretical frameworks, this study examined the role of socio-demographic variables on parental efficacy for involvement in inclusive education in Nigeria, The investigation is based on this research question: To what extent do socio-demographic factors, such as (education, marital status and gender) influenced the self-efficacy of parents of learners with SENs on involvement in inclusive education in Nigeria? Employing a quantitative research method, this study gathered data from 372 parents of learners with SENs in 10 regular primary schools in the city of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, and used a survey instrument on Parental Involvement in Inclusive Education (PII) for data collection. The study found that socio-demographic variables such as marital status, education and gender significantly influenced the efficacy of parents of learners with SENs on in education of their children in Nigeria. Finally the study recommended that school must strive to promote school climate that supports parental efficacy for involvement, and ascribed to parents, the responsibilities that will make them a partners in their child education.   

Keywords: Parent involvement, self–efficacy, socio-demographic variables, inclusive education