|  e-ISSN: 2147-5156

Original article | Turkish Journal of Teacher Education 2012, Vol. 1(2) 75-89

Understanding Lecturers’ Knowledge of Critical Thinking: A Study of Two Secondary Pre-Service Teacher Education Programs in Saudi Arabia

Alhasan Allamnakhrah

pp. 75 - 89   |  Manu. Number: turkish journal of t

Published online: December 30, 2012  |   Number of Views: 77  |  Number of Download: 689


Abstract

This is a qualitative case study assessing lecturers’ knowledge of critical thinking at two secondary pre-service teacher education programs in Saudi Arabia. Data include open-ended interviews with four lecturers from each university and is based on purposeful sampling. The theoretical framework is Richard Paul’s (1992) theories on critical thinking and the consensus arrived at in the Delphi Report. The findings demonstrate that there is a lack of knowledge of critical thinking theory among lecturers at both universities and this can be attributed to many factors including cultural, lack of professional development and an emphasis on rote-learning and memorisation. This lack of knowledge of critical thinking impacts on the development of critical thinking among students who will perpetuate this in their own teaching practice in the future. This paper argues for education reforms based on critical thinking to improve student learning outcomes and for professional development in critical thinking for lecturers.

Keywords: Lecturers’ knowledge, critical thinking, teacher education


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Allamnakhrah, A. (2012). Understanding Lecturers’ Knowledge of Critical Thinking: A Study of Two Secondary Pre-Service Teacher Education Programs in Saudi Arabia. Turkish Journal of Teacher Education, 1(2), 75-89.

Harvard
Allamnakhrah, A. (2012). Understanding Lecturers’ Knowledge of Critical Thinking: A Study of Two Secondary Pre-Service Teacher Education Programs in Saudi Arabia. Turkish Journal of Teacher Education, 1(2), pp. 75-89.

Chicago 16th edition
Allamnakhrah, Alhasan (2012). "Understanding Lecturers’ Knowledge of Critical Thinking: A Study of Two Secondary Pre-Service Teacher Education Programs in Saudi Arabia". Turkish Journal of Teacher Education 1 (2):75-89.

References

    Ab Kadir, M. (2009). Rethinking Thinking Schools, Learning Nation: teachers’ and students’
    perspectives of critical thinking in Singaporean education. Unpublished PhD, Melbourne,
    Melbourne.
    التفكير لمھارات التدريس ھيئة اعضاء ممارسة .)Al-Amberk, H. (2007
    (Practice faculty members toالجامعية بالمتغيرات وعقته الناقد
    think critically and its relationship to variablesUniversity environment. Unpublished PhD, King
    Saud university Riyadh.
    Al-Asmari, A. (2008). Integration of foreign culture into pre-service EFL teacher education: a case
    study of Saudi Arabia. PhD Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Melbourne., Melbourne.
    في - بنين - الثانوية للمرحلة التاريخ كتب تحليل .)Al-Asmari, S. (1997
    الناقد التفكير مھارات ضوءفي السعودية العربية المملكة
    (Analysis of history textbooks for secondary school - boys - in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in
    the light of critical thinking skills). Master, King Saud University., Riyadh.
    Al-degether, R. (2009). Teacher educators' opinion and knowledge about critical thinking and the
    methods they use to encourage critical thinking skills in five female teacher colleges in Saudi
    Arabia. Unpublished Ph.D, University of Kansas, United States. Retrieved from
    http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1729723231&Fmt=7&clientId=25620&RQT=309&VNa
    me=PQD
    الرؤية غياب بين السعودية في التعليم اصح .)Al-Essa, A. (2009
    ا=دارة وعجز الدينية الثقافة وتوجس السياسية
    (التربويةEducation Reform in Saudi Arabia between Absence of Political Vision,
    Apprehesion of the Religious Culture and Disability of Educatinal Managment) (First ed.).
    Beirut: Dar Al Saqi.
    Al-Gabrey, W. (2007). The Impact of Utilizing Brain Storming Method in developing the critical
    thinking & academic Achievement of the secondary school first grade in Mathematics Currula.
    Unpublished Master umm al.qura university, Makkah
    Al-Hazmi, S. (2006). Writing and Reflection: Perceptions of Arab EFL Learners. South Asian
    Language Review, XVI(2).
    Al-Miziny, H. (2010). ( السعودية في التعليم أختطافAbdcating of Education in
    Saudi Arabia) (First ed.). Beirut: Arab Diffusion Company
    Al-Qahtani, S. (1995). Teaching thinking skills in the social studies curriculum of Saudi Arabian
    secondary schools. International Journal of Educational Development, 15(2), 155-163.
    Al-Qmadi, S. (2008). Assessment of Learning Actvies of Linguisc Competencies at Secondary School
    ١st Year, Based on Appropriate Students' Critical Thinking Skills. Unpublished Master, Umm
    al.qura university, Makkah
    الفكري ا=من تعزيز وتعليمية تربوية ابعاد .)Al-Sagoube, M. (May 2009
    (Dimensions of educational and learning in the promotion of intellectual Security). Paper
    presented at the First national security conference "concepts and challenges" Riyadh , Saudi
    Arabia
    Al-Souk, M. (2009). ( اعداده يتم كيف المعلمHow can we praper the teacher?) Retrieved 18/1/2011,
    2011, from http://bahaedu.gov.sa/vb/archive/index.php/t-648.html
    والحلول والمعوقات المظاھر :العربي العالم في اFبداعي البحثي اFنتاج ضعف .)Al Beraidi, A. (2010
    دارية العلوم على التركيز معF ( اThe weak production, creative research in the Arab world:
    features, constraints and solutions with a focus on science management). Journal of Economic
    and Administrative Sciences, Qassim University, 3(2).
    لمھارات العربية اللغة كتب تضمين مدى ما .)Allamnakrah, A. (2006
    المملكة في الثانوي ا=ول الصف في الناقد التفكير
    ( السعودية العربيةWhat extent of critical thinking skills in Arabic language
    curriculum in high school in Saudi Arabia). Unpublished Master, Jordan, Amman.
    Amen, O. (2008). The Effect of Strategic switch of roles in the development of critical thinking and
    Achievement and retention In history for Second grade students of secondary in Al madinah Al
    munawwarah. Unpublished Master Taibah University Taibah.
    A.Allamnakhrah / Turkish Journal of Teacher Education, 2012 Volume (issue) 1(2):75-89
    88
    Barnawi, O. (2011). Finding a Place for Critical Thinking and Self-voice in College English as a
    Foreign Language Writing Classrooms. English Language Teaching, 4(2), 190-197.
    Beyer, B. K. (1995). Critical Thinking. Bloomington, Indiana Phi Delta Kappa Educational
    Foundation
    Brookfield, S. D. (1987). Developing critical thinkers: Challenging adults to explore alternative ways
    of thinking and acting. San Francisco, CA, US: Jossey-Bass.
    Cameron, B. T. (2011). Critical thoughts on critical thinking in Saudi Arabia, Open Democracy free
    thinking for the world Retrieved from http://www.opendemocracy.net/bobby-thomascameron/critical-thoughts-on-critical-thinking-in-saudi-arabia
    Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches: Sage
    Publications, Inc.
    Diamond, R. M. (2002). Field guide to academic leadership: Publication of the National Academy for
    Academic leadership. San Francisco : jossey- Bass.
    Duron, R., Limbach, B., & Waugh, W. (2006). Critical thinking framework for any discipline.
    International journal on teaching and learning in higher education, 17(2), 160-166
    Egege, S., & Kutieleh, S. (2004). Critical Thinking: Teaching Foreign Notions to Foreign Students.
    International Education Journal., 4(4), 75-85.
    Einns, R. H. (2011). Critical Thinking.Net Retrieved 20/3/2012, 2012, from
    http://www.criticalthinking.net/articles.html
    Elder, L. (2002). An Interview with Linda Elder About Using Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools
    Retrieved 2/9/2011, 2011, from http://www.criticalthinking.org/articles/formato.cfm
    Elder, L. (2009). Critical Thinking and Gifted Education Retrieved 19/8/2010, 2010, from
    http://www.criticalthinking.org/articles/an-interview-linda-elder.cfm
    Elder, L. (January.2003). An Interview with Linda Elder: About Critical Thinking and Gifted
    Education. Interview by Michael F. Shaughnessy and Randy Seevers. The Foundation for
    Critical Thinking. Retrieved from https://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/an-interview-withlinda-elder-about-critical-thinking-and-gifted-education/476
    Elyas, T., & Picard, M. (2010). Saudi Arabian educational history: impacts on English language
    teaching. Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, 3(2), 136.
    Ennis, R. H. (1990). The Extent to Which Critical Thinking Is Subject-Specific: Further Clarification.
    Educational Researcher, 19(4), 13-16.
    Facione, P. A. (1990a). Critical Thinking: A Statement of Expert Consensus for Purposes of
    Educational Assessment and Instruction. Research Findings and Recommendations. (pp. 112):
    American Philosophical Association, Newark, DE. (Document Reproduction Service No. ED
    315423).
    Facione, P. A. (1990b). The California Critical Thinking Skills Test: College Level Technical Report
    --Experimental Validation and Content Validity. Available from
    www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/recordDetail?accno=ED327549 Retrieved 14/8/2010, from
    ERIC
    Facione, P. A., Facione, N. C., & Giancarlo, C. (1992). The California critical thinking disposition
    inventory: California Academic Press Millbrae, Calif.
    Fisher, R. (1990). Teaching children to think: Basil Blackwell.
    Hatcher, D. (2000). Arguments for Another Definition of Critical Thinking. The Journal of Critical
    Analysis 20(1), 3-8.
    Hoepfl, M. C. (1997). Choosing Qualitative Research: A Primer for Technology Education
    Researchers. Journal of Technology Education, 9(1), 47-63.
    Jalil, P., & Ziq, K. (2009). Improving of Cognitive and Meta-cognitive Skills of the Students in View
    of the Educational Practices in the Gulf Region. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 6(3), 3-
    12.
    Johanson, J. (2010). Cultivating Critical Thinking: An Interview with Stephen Brookfield. Journal of
    Developmental Education, 33(3), 26.
    Kafa, A. (May 2009). The role of the educational curricula for establishing security of intellectual
    "curriculum of uniformity in high school in Saudi Arabia case study. Paper presented at the
    First national security conference "concepts and challenges", Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    A.Allamnakhrah / Turkish Journal of Teacher Education, 2012 Volume (issue) 1(2):75-89
    89
    Lun, L. (2010). Examining the use of culture on critical thinking in higher education. Unpublished
    PhD, Victoria University of Wellington-New Zealand, Wellington.
    Marshall, M. (1996). Sampling for qualitative research. Family Practice, 13(6), 522.
    McPeck, J. (1990). Critical Thinking and Subject Specificity: A Reply to Ennis. Educational
    Researcher., 19(4), 10-12.
    Merriam, S. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation: Jossey-Bass.
    Nagappan, R. (2001). The Teaching of Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Malaysia. Journal of
    Southeast Asian Education, 2(1).
    Owu-Ewie, C. (2008). Enhancing the thinking skills of pre-service teachers: A case study of komenda
    teacher training college. Unpublished Ph.D, Ohio University, Ohio
    Patton, M. (1990). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. London.
    Patton, M. (2002a). Designing qualitative studies. Qualitative research and evaluation methods, 3.
    Patton, M. Q. (2002b). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods (3, illustrated ed.): Sage
    Publications.
    Paul, R. (1992). Critical thinking: What every person needs to survive in a rapidly changing world.:
    Santa Rosa, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking
    Paul, R. (1995a). Critical thinking: how to prepare students for a rapidly changing world: Foundation
    for Critical Thinking.
    Paul, R. (2004a). The state of critical thinking today: The Need for a Substantive Concept of Critical
    Thinking, as the organizer in developing blueprints for institutional change Retrieved
    14/7/2011, 2011, from http://www.criticalthinking.org/professionalDev/the-state-ct-today.cfm
    Paul, R. (2008). Professional development. . Santa Rosa, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.
    Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2008). How to read a paragraph.The Art of close Reading: The foundation for
    Critical Thinking.
    Paul, R., Elder, L., & Bartell, T. (1997). California Teacher Preparation for Instruction in Critical
    Thinking: Research Findings and Policy Recommendations.
    Paul, R., & Heaslip, P. (1995). Critical thinking and intuitive nursing practice. Journal of Advanced
    Nursing, 22(1), 40-47.
    Paul, R., & Wilson, R. (1993). Critical thinking: the key to veterinary educational reform. J Vet Med
    Ed, 20(2), 34-36.
    Prawat, R. (1992). Teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning: A constructivist perspective.
    American Journal of Education, 354-395.
    Ramanathan, V., & Kaplan, R. B. (1996). Some Problematic "Channels" In the Teaching of Critical
    Thinking in Current LI Composition
    Textbooks: Implications for L2 Student-Writers. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 7(2), 225-249.
    Rubin, H., & Rubin, I. (2005). Qualitative interviewing: The art of hearing data: Sage Publications,
    Inc.
    Siegel, H. (1988). Educating reason: Rationality, critical thinking, and education: Routledge London.
    Simpson, E. (2002). The development of critical thinking in saudi nurses: an ethnographical
    approach. Unpublished Ph.D, Queensland University of Technology, Queensland. Retrieved
    from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/15868/
    The World Bank. (2002). Literacy in the Middle East. (pp. 18). United Nation , Geneva.
    Yin, R. (2009). Case study research: Design and methods (3 ed.): Sage Publications, Inc.
    Zohar, A., & Schwartzer, N. (2005). Assessing Teachers’ Pedagogical Knowledge in the Context of
    Teaching Higher‐order Thinking. International Journal of Science Education, 27(13), 1595-
    1620.